Home of the BITS


The Brief Inventory of Technology Self-Efficacy (BITS) and Brief Inventory of Technology Self-Efficacy – Short Form (BITS-SF) assess computer self-efficacy (CSE). Both measures were created by Arne Weigold, Ph.D., to determine people’s levels of confidence engaging in novice, advanced, and expert computer skills and are free to download and use non-commercially (Weigold & Weigold, 2021).


The BITS is an 18-item measure with one score each for its three subscales (Novice, Advanced, and Expert), whereas the BITS-SF is a six-item measure with one total score that signifies where people fall on the novice to expert continuum. Both measures assess confidence across the same computer skill domains and can be used in both research and applied settings. The choice of which one to use should be based on the needs of the user. In short:


  • Three scores provide detailed information about CSE
  • Fast to administer
  • Application example: CSE assessment for only one or two computer skill levels for potential trainees
  • Application example: CSE measurement for separate computer skill levels in multivariate research


  • One simple total CSE score
  • Even faster to administer
  • Application example: CSE assessment for students or job applicants
  • Application example: CSE measurement as part of demographics in research

More detailed information about the BITS and the BITS-SF can be found on their respective pages (BITS and BITS-SF) on this website, and they can be downloaded in different formats from this website’s downloads page.


The BITS and BITS-SF are currently available in English (see Weigold & Weigold, 2021), Simplified Chinese, and Traditional Chinese (see Weigold et al., 2023). However, work is being done to translate them into more languages. You can check back on this page or email the author to request notification to find out when more languages are published.

If you are interested in translating and validating the BITS, it is strongly recommended to contact the author first to be provided with resources, collaborate if interested, and to make sure that no two people develop the same language in parallel.


You can contact Arne Weigold, Ph.D., here, if you have any questions.


Weigold, A., Weigold, I. K., Zhang, X., Tang, N., & Chong, Y. K. (2023). Translation and validation of the Brief Inventory of Technology Self-Efficacy (BITS): Simplified and Traditional Chinese versions. Social Science Computer Review. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/08944393231176596

Weigold, A., & Weigold, I. K. (2021). Measuring confidence engaging in computer activities at different skill levels: Development and validation of the Brief Inventory of Technology Self-Efficacy (BITS). Computers & Education, 169, 104210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104210